Participant 1 – CNR

National Research Council of Italy

The National Research Council (CNR) is the largest public research institution in Italy, the only one under the Research Ministry performing multidisciplinary activities. Its structure include 7 scientific Departments among which the Department of Physical science and material technologies coordinates the physical-material area. The objectives of the Department include both the development of scientific thematic at the edge of knowledge and technological applications with significant economical outcomes. In the quantum science and technology field, the realization of devices for quantum sensing and information processing, with unmatchable characteristics, if compared to the classical systems has pivotal role.

Website of the National Research Council of Italy: https://www.cnr.it/

CNR group of the SUPARGALAX project takes part of the Institute for superconductors, oxides and other innovative materials and devices (SPIN-CNR) and the Institute of Nanoscience of the CNR (CNR-NANO). One of the main activities of the SPIN is micro/nano superconducting electronic devices (for quantum computation and other applications). The research activities of the CNR-NANO are centered on implementation of nanostructures and nanodevices.

Website of the SPIN-CNR http://www.spin.cnr.it

Websites of the CNR-NANO: http://www.nano.cnr.it/

http://www.nano.cnr.it/index.php?mod=men&id=159

Researches from the SPIN-CNR involved in the SUPERGALAX project

Dr. Mikhail Lisitskiy –Project Coordinator-(Gender male), Italian Citizenship, was born in 1963 in Moscow, Russia, In 1986 he has graduated cum laude in Physics of Metals at the Moscow Steel and Alloys Institute, Russia, and his Diploma has been declared equivalent to Italian Diploma in Physics. In 1991 Dr. Mikhail Lisitskiy has received his Ph.D. in Physical and Mathematical Sciences from the Moscow Steel and Alloys Institute, Russia, which has been declared equivalent to Italian Doctor of Science. Academician, Prof. Alexey Abrikosov was a scientific supervisor of his Ph.D. activity. Dr. Mikhail Lisitskiy is involved in the scientific activity since 1986, when his three years Ph. D. course begun, until now. After Ph. D. course, since 1989 he has continued his scientific activity at the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (from 1991 – the Russian Academy of Sciences) of Moscow, Division of Physical Electronics, firstly as a permanent Researcher and from 1995 as a Senoir Researcher. Since 1997 till 2002 he has worked in Italy under different research grants and contracts of the National Institute for the Physics of Matter (INFM) and the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). In 2002 he has become a Contract Researcher of the National Research Council (CNR) at the Institute of Cybernetics “Eduardo Caianiello” of the CNR. Since 2008, January 1, as a winner of the Italian public competition, he has received a permanent position of the National Research Council at the Institute of Cybernetics “Eduardo caianiello” of the CNR with qualification of Researcher. From January of 2014 till now Dr. Mikhail Lisitskiy is a Researcher of the Institute of Superconductors, Oxides and Other Innovative Materials and Devices (acronym SPIN) of the National Research Council of Italy. Dr. Mikhail Lisitskiy was a Scientific Supervisor of several graduate students and PhD students. Dr. Mikhail Lisitskiy has published over 79 papers in peer reviewed journals and has an h-index of 13 (Google Scholar).

The main scientific interests of Dr. Mikhail Lisitskiy are: Superconductivity, especially, weak superconductivity; physics of Josephson devices, such as radiation detectors, SQUID sensors and qubit; physics and technological aspects of the planar hybrid tunable THz metamaterial structures based on liquid crystal as tuning mechanism.

Actual scientific interests of Dr. Mikhail Lisitskiy are: single X- and gamma –ray photon detector based on Josephson tunnel junction with trapped Abrikosov vortices; quantum coherence in Josephson devices including physics, material research and novel fabrication technologies for high coherence time superconducting qubits;

Areas of expertise of Dr. Mikhail Lisitskiy are: physics of detection mechanisms of nuclear (X – and gamma – rays, alpha particles) radiation based on Josephson tunnel junctions; fabrication techniques based on Al, Pb, Ta, Nb, and NbN as superconducting materials and AlOx, AlN and a-Si:H as insulation materials for realization of thin film superconducting devices including radiation detectors, SQUIDs, nano-SQUIDs, microwave lumped resonators and Josephson phase qubits; ultralow temperature charge –pulse measurements by 3He/4He-dilution refrigerator (up to 70 mK) of energy spectrum of X-ray and alpha-particle radiations by superconducting tunnel junction detectors; low temperature measurements (up to 4.2 K) of the transmissivity |S21| parameter of superconducting lumped LC resonators up to 40 GHz and experimental estimation of dielectric loss of insulation materials embedded in the resonators; ultralow temperature measurements by 3He/4He-dilution refrigerator (up to 20 mK) of Rabi oscillations and qubit spectroscopy of superconducting Josephson phase qubits.

Dr. Mikkel Ejrnaes (Gender male) was born the 1st November 1973 in AArhus (Denmark) and is now a permanent researcher at the National Research Counci (CNR) of Italy since 2009. From 2014 till now Dr. Mikkel Elrnaes is a Researcher of the Institute of Superconductors, Oxides and Other Innovative Materials and Devices (acronym SPIN) of the National Research Council. Dr. Mikkel Ejrnaes has co-authered 60 scientific publications and has an h-index of 12.

The scientific work Mikkel Ejrnaes has been focused on non-equilibrium phenomenon in superconducting nanostructures along with their physical properties and interaction with light, covering all aspects in this context e.g.:

-The role of the superconducting material from conventional strong-coupling to superconductor-ferromagnetic multilayers and high-temperature superconductors.

-The role of the connectivity of the superconductor on the nanoscale ranging from a simply connected region to advanced geometries exploiting parallel nanowires e.g. non-simply connected superconductors.

-Non-equilibrium phenomenon ranging from picosecond spontaneous fluctuations to the nanosecond dynamics of a moving normal-metal/superconductor phase boundary.

-Light – Superconductor interaction ranging from single photon detection with unconventional detectors design on the nanoscale to timing precision of the detection mechanism.

The areas of expertise of Mikkel Ejrnaes most relevant to this project are:

-Fabrication of nanoscale superconducting structures on a wide range of materials.

-Interaction of superconducting nanostructures with light.

-Extremely low noise cryogenic measurements.

-Advanced superconductor design, measurement techniques and data analysis for capturing and harvesting specific interesting physical effects.

-Experimental work with superconducting qubit structures.

Dr.Nassim Chikhi (Gender male) was born in Algiers, Algeria, in 1980. He received Engineer degree in electronics specialized in electronic instrumentation from University of science and technology Houari Boumediene (USTHB) Algiers, Algeria, in 2003. MSc of micro and nano technology from Liverpool University, UK, in 2008, and PhD in Novel Technologies for Materials, Sensors and Imaging from University of Naples “Federico II,” Naples, Italy in 2012.

From 2004 to 2009, research assistant at Centre for Development of Advanced Technologies (CDTA) Algiers, Algeria. Working on neuronal network implementation on FPGA for ECG signal classification. Since 2009 focussed on Design, fabrication, and characterization of tunable & reconfigurable metamaterial based structures. From 2018, has a PostDoc position at the physics department of Naples University in collaboration with the CERN with main interest for the metamaterial as absorbers for trapped modes inside the collimators. From 2020 is a PostDoc of the SPIN-CNR in the SUERGALAX project.

Researches from the CNR-NANO involved in the SUPERGALAX project

Marco Affronte (gender male) is Full Professor of Physics at University of Modena e Reggio Emilia (I) and senior associate member of CNR-NANO since 2006. After graduating in Physics (Laurea with full marks and honours at University of Florence I, 1987), he obtained his Ph.D. at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (CH) in 1991 and worked at CNRS in Grenoble (F) in 1992 as Post Doc awarded by European Marie Curie individual fellowship. Since 2014. M.A. was Director of the PhD School in Physics and NanoScience at UNIMORE (2014-19). His background is on Solid State Physics and he worked on superconductivity, electronic transport and thermodynamic properties of materials, molecular magnetism. His interests are now focused on Nanomagnetism and Quantum Technologies in particular spintronics, graphene and on development of nano-devices and superconducting detectors working in quantum regime. M. A: was coordinator of 2 EU FET projects and member of the Steering Committee of several national and European projects. He serve(s/d) as project reviewer several National, EU and international agencies and member of evaluation panel for some of these (Eu-FET-ICT, French-ANR, Academy of Finland). Publications: more than 200 scientific articles, with more than 5800 citations, >50 invited/oral presentations at international conferences in last 10years and also to general public. (h-index=41WoS; ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5711-7822)

Alberto Ghirri (male, born in 1980, ORCID 0000-0001-7316-3765) is a permanent researcher at Istituto Nanoscienze – CNR in Modena, Italy. He has a background in experimental physics with more than 50 publications in international journals and h-index = 20. His studies are related to the fields of quantum magnetism,microwavesand hybrid quantum systems. In particular, he recently focused on the investigation of the coherent coupling between solid-states quantum systems, such as spin ensembles and semiconductor quantum dots, and microwave fields confined in a superconducting cavity.

Claudio Bonizzoni (male) obtained the PhD on Physics and Nanosciences (cum Laude) in 2018 at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.He was Post-Doctoral research fellow at the Department of Physics, Informatics and Mathematics in Modena in 2018 and 2019. He’s currently

Post-Doctoral research fellow at Istituto Nanoscienze CNR in Modena. His main activity concerns spin qubits and spectroscopic techniques at microwave frequency and low temperature.8 publications.

Description of significant infrastructure and major items of technical equipment, relevant to theSUPERGALAX project

The research team has a long time experience in fabrication of thin film devices based on Josephson junctions and superconducting nanonwires. The research team has all necessary technological equipment for a full cycle device fabrication starting from photo mask realization up to final assembling of chips on chip carrier, namely:

Clean room facilities;

Laser writer system for laser beam photolithography Microtech LASERWRITER LW-2004;

Upgraded SEM FEI Quanta 600 adapted to electron beam with energy of 30 keV in modality of EBL (Electron Beam Lithography );

Laboratory of UV photolithography equipped by Karl Suss mask aligner, Standard Cost Effective Equipment Hotplate 1100;

High vacuum dc-magnetron multi target (Nb, Al, Si) deposition system equipped with a cryopump and with an additional load-look chamber. Both the RF source and the extractor ion source IQE 11/35 (SPECS Company, Germany) are mounted into the load-look chamber;

Vacuum deposition system Leybold for thermal evaporation both metallic (Pb, Au, Al) and insulation (SiO) thin films;

JUPITER II plasma system for reactive ion etching of thin films;

Wedge bonder;

Alpha Step Profilometer;